In the mountainous part of Crimea studied more than 800 natural caves, mines and pits of varying length and depth. They were formed by a process called karst. Geographical concept of “Karst” comes from the Karst plateau (the German pronunciation of “Karst”) on the territory of modern Yugoslavia. This term denotes the phenomenon that occur in water-soluble rocks and associated with the chemical process of their dissolution. Rain and melted snow water containing carbon dioxide, initially, as it were eating away at the surface of limestone mountain ranges. In these cells appear, sinkholes, depressions, cracks, and little by little, the water rushes into the bowels limestone mountains. Dissolution of rock and then continues at depth.
The consequence of this process is, on the one hand, the germination stolbikoobraznyh forms of limestone on the surface of the array, on the other – the appearance of different depth of karst cavities (caves, mines, wells). In Crimea, more than 40 caves, glaciers. The most famous of them, open and described KI table at the end of the XVIII century. – Ice Cave Buzluk-Koba on Karabi-Yayla. Snow and ice is not disappearing year-round. The longest cave of the Crimea – Kizil-Koba. It is located on the western slope of the plateau Dolgorukovskoj, 3,5 km to the east of the village Perevalnogo Simferopol district. The total length of its stroke -13 km 100 m Kizil-Koba – a six-storey cave system with lots of horizontal galleries and vertical wells.
Here are a few underground lakes with surface area of 500 square meters. m and a depth of 3 meters or more. One of the most impressive rooms – Academic height of his arch – about 8 m, the area – more than 200 square meters. m. deepest karstic shaft in the Crimea and Ukraine, and one and in the most profound in this country a soldier, named in memory of nameless soldiers who died during the Great Patriotic War. The depth of the mine – 508 m. The total length of the studied transitions -1800 m. It is located in the eastern part of Karabi-plateau near the village of Krasnoselovki Bzlogorskogo area. The mine opened in 1968 in the story of Korolenko “Emelyan” when describing the trip to one of the mountains of Crimea say about the cave Biibash-Koba (Tysyachegolovaya cave “). Described in the story of the cave, which was visited by Vladimir Korolenko, located on the lower plateau Chater-Dag. Here – bottomless pit mine, caves Su-yk-Koba, “The Knight”. On the upper plateau are the highest point Chater-Dag – top Eklizi-breaker (1527 m) and Angara-Burup (1453 m). Since “Tysyachegolovoy (Biibash-Koba) There are a few legends. Here is one: Local residents fleeing foreign conquerors, rose Chater-Doug and took refuge in the cave shrine. Random dog barking strangers have the cave entrance. They built a big fire near him, and all taken refuge suffocated in his refuge from the smoke. Until relatively recently, in the cave were piles of human skulls.