One of the issues that traditionally tends to arouse a greater fear during the flight is the emergence of turbulence on the way and that these might be, in most of the cases, without prior notice. Therefore, in these lines we will focus on knowing the phenomenon of turbulence and its causes, with the aim that this us serve as a soothing element for the future. To who not has happened on a route that does not have to be a long distance, as, for example, cheap flights to London, you have experienced turbulence? Turbulence consist of the air movement, which usually manifests itself in an unexpected manner and that many times, when the sky is clear, is imperceptible to the human eye. These unexpected movements of air may occur as a result of various factors, related to the weather conditions: atmospheric pressure, Jet engines passing a short distance from the present situation of the aircraft, the existence of masses and fronts of hot or cold air, as well as the emergence of storms or the existence of mountainous foothills. Generally, it is more common to find turbulence when the plane is flying at high altitude, so it is less likely to suffer this type of contingency in flights to Ibiza that on flights to Paris, for example. There are several problems arising from the turbulence in mid-flight.

The most important of them is that this atmospheric phenomenon has become the leading cause of injuries among passengers and crew members, especially when the turbulence occur while passengers moving around the cabin of the appliance. In addition, some of the handicaps of this air movement are that, normally, turbulence are most noticeable in the cabin than in the cockpit where pilots, are sometimes impossible to predict and occur when there are no clouds. Some statistics related to the turbulence: between 1981 and 1997, the big airlines suffered 342 cases of turbulence, which killed 3 passengers (two of them traveled without belt) and injured Bass a total of 80 people, of which 73 were not wearing seat belt fastened. Original author and source of the article


An earthquake causes a sudden transformation of energy, which converts the energy of deformation accumulated in the upper layers of the Earth’s crust into kinetic energy. The earthquake releases that energy through wave movements that are transmitted on the inside and on the surface of the Earth. This energy, attenuated by distance, must be absorbed by the structures of buildings and, in the case of severe earthquakes, dissipated. The State of current knowledge has allowed to develop regulations with bases for seismic design of structures with reasonable security for life, and even the application of economic criteria in the earthquake resistant design, opting for less strong than necessary structures. A structure subjected to a severe seismic movement can damage controlled, without going to collapse, and thus dissipate an important part of the absorbed energy, which means that by allowing degrade the structure you can save from collapse and protect the lives that are inside. Therefore, the seismic behaviour appropriate structure depends, in addition to its strength, its ability to dissipate energy from the moment in which their deformations exceed the elastic limit, i.e. of its ductility. Vulnerability to an earthquake is the poor behavior of a structure against an even moderate earthquake, due to a deficit of resistance and/or a low ductility.

The normative seismic, in general, support buildings are designed to resist strong earthquakes without collapse, even admitting severe structural damage. In the case of moderate earthquakes do not allow damage to structural elements, but damage in not structural elements such as walls, partitions, etc., and, in general, are easily repairable. In the case of slight earthquakes, the structure must not suffer any damage.

United Nations Fund Water

ES simply criminal. Only in the stingy and stupid selfishness of a few, you can find the unreasonableness of such behavior.This planet needs water to live, needs both really rather than call it planet Earth, it would be much more indicated call it planet water. And only one species from the million who inhabit it seems to not have it misunderstood. The human being. We hope to have reached the limit, make us reflect and change our attitude of contempt for the sake most precious of all that nature has given us. The water.

In addition, known at present, according to figures from the United Nations (UN), there a crisis generated by the scarcity of water, its terrible administration and the large number of disadvantages with respect to its sanitation worldwide, which generates a great concern. It is estimated that more than one billion people not have necessary quantities of drinking water to meet daily tasks, while that other 2 thousand 600 billion lack sanitation, so studies reflect of the World of Health Organization (who) and the United Nations Fund for children (Unicef). As indicated in the message from Mrs Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO on the occasion of the world water day is worrying, we find the following paragraph.More than 2,500 millions of human beings today lack adequate health care systems. It is estimated that 884 million people, most of them African, have no access to drinking water. Some 1.5 million children under five years of age die annually from waterborne diseases. Ricardo Natalichio director of environment and society says that the causes that there is such an amount of people without access to safe drinking water are diverse, in each region are different. But many have points in common.Rivers, streams, lakes and phreatic waters pure and perfectly drinkable, are being contaminated for decades by the lack of environmental commitment most large companies and complicit Governments.The use of water especially in regions of the third world, by subsidiaries of multinational corporations of the first world and the local companies themselves, in general is and has been disastrous. And the fault is not only of the pig, but also who gives him food.

The Governments of these countries have been lax, unconscious, corrupt, ignorant and entregadores; among many other virtues.Humanity today can send ships to the space, can decode DNA, managing the atom, fill heaven of satellites, the land of automobiles and the atmosphere of CO2. But it cannot provide more than one-third of the population of the most basic health service. Neither prevent that 1.5 million children die each year just by not having safe drinking water. Take into account that one third of the world’s population lives in countries suffering from lack of water. points us out, that by 2025, expected that this figure will increase to two-thirds. But the amount of water in the world is enough for all, to meet the basic needs of all. The United Nations Organization United points out that every person needs a minimum of 50 litres a day for drinking, bathing, cooking and other purposes. In 1990, more than 1 billion people did not have that minimum. Provide universal access to that minimum of 50 litres by 2015, it would be less than 1% of the amount of water that is used today in the world. However, it seems a distant reach goal.